The different kinds of perception
Factors affecting perception
In the first place, as we pointed out, a perception involves our having some knowledge, however simple, about the object. The only difference on the mental side is commonly to be found in the intensity and objectivity of the two. But we cannot see them if our minds have been wholly unschooled in such perceptions. Learning Objectives Explain factors that influence selection, the first stage of the perception process Key Takeaways Key Points Selection is the process by which we attend to some stimuli in our environment and not others. We have also described in a general way the method by which certain kinds of motor reactions to these sensory stimulations are brought to pass. In one experiment, students were allocated to pleasant or unpleasant tasks by a computer. All the sensory and afferent processes have their ultimate value, as we saw must be the case in Chapter II, because of the more efficient movements of adjustment to which they lead. Each stimulus or group of stimuli can be interpreted in many different ways. Key Terms Perceptual Schema: Psychological systems of categorization that we use to organize impressions of people appearance, social roles, interaction style, habits, etc. As we observed in our discussion of habit, every nervous current which passes through the central system seems to leave its impress behind it, and this impress modifies the nature of the neural excitations which follow it. If this metaphor were en- -tirely appropriate, it might seem that perceptions would come to a certain point of development and then stop. The same point is admirably illustrated :by such drawings as the accompanying, figures 52 and Clearly, a fully developed perception is itself simply a kind of habit.
Such matches between the object as it is perceived and the object as it is understood to actually exist are called perceptual constancies. The Environmental Stimuli This is everything in our environment that has the potential to be perceived.
The law of closure holds that when we capture objects that are not complete, we perceptually close them up so that we perceive shapes in a picture that are not actually there.
It states a law of the mind which we might wish at times to chancre, but cannot. Key Terms Perceptual constancy: The tendency to see familiar objects as having standard shape, size, color, or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, or lighting; stability in perception despite gross instability in stimulation.
Often the perceptual activity is sufficient to decide this volition.
The different kinds of perception
Auditory perceptions show just the same influence of experience as do the visual perceptions which we have analysed. Presently, as we come to learn the Ianguage, the sounds become words with meanings intelligible to us, and our perception of what we hear thus manifests, as in the case of vision, unmistakable dependence upon our past experience. Gestalt psychologists argued that these principles exist because the mind has an innate disposition to perceive patterns in the stimulus based on certain rules. In the second form there is a sort of background consciousness, such as we sometimes note in dreams, which assures the victim that the phenomenon is after all imaginary and unreal, despite its genuinely objective appearance. This attainment is commonly achieved about the third or fourth week of life, although there is great variation here. Whether a person identifies as male or female will also factor into the way they perceive messages. The principle of good continuation makes sense of stimuli that overlap: when there is an intersection between two or more objects, people tend to perceive each as a single uninterrupted object. We can only perceive those things which our experience allows us to perceive. Memory imagination, reasoning, etc. Speaking literally, it therefore appears that development in perception really involves perceiving new objects in the old. Visual mental stuff, for example, whether perceptually or ideationally produced, is sui generis, and totally unlike any other kind of mental stuff, such as auditory or olfactory. We learn to see Dew things in the old objects, new charactertistics, sic which before escaped our knowledge.
We sometimes read the words put before us as we have reason to suppose they ought to be, not as they are. Evidently we make far more constant use of our past experience than common-sense observation would lead us to suppose.
The elementary school teacher learns how to keep the corner of her eye sensitive to iniquity upon the back seat while apparently absorbed in listening to the recitation of virtue -upon the front bench.
Had we no previous experiences that resembled the present one, we should be hopelessly uncertain as to the element of size. Learning Objectives Describe the most common types of perceuptual constancies Key Takeaways Key Points Perceptual constancy refers to perceiving familiar objects as having standard shape, size, color, and location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, and lighting.
If the object have no such definite antecedent reactions connected with it, we straightway fall to deliberating as to our course of action ; or if the impression be wholly fleeting, we pass to some more stimulating enticement.
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