Armed with tipped spears, the Paleo-Indians changed over time, from primarily foragers into primarily big game hunters, preying on the Ice Age mastodons, mammoths, long-horned bison, horses, camels and giant sloths.
Holliday, Vance T. Paleo- Indian tool kits also included chipped stone tools required to skin and butcher game, scrape skins and hides, and fashion specialized tools and component parts e.
In the Southern High Plains, this means that there is one Paleo-Indian campsite per square miles 1, square kilometers. This theory has been complicated by recent arguments that the earliest North Americans were biologically distinct from more recent people and that they may have arrived from Europe.
They inhabited the southwestern United States and northern Mexico between 10, and 40, years.
Martin and T. This theory has been complicated by recent arguments that the earliest North Americans were biologically distinct from more recent people and that they may have arrived from Europe. Traditionally, it has been argued that humans migrated here out of Asia, either moving in boats down the west coast or walking through a corridor between the continental glaciers onto the northern Great Plains, although the timing of this migration has always been uncertain. When they first began hunting, they probably trapped smaller animals. Lakes and rivers were teeming with many species of fish, birds and aquatic mammals. In the Southern High Plains, this means that there is one Paleo-Indian campsite per square miles 1, square kilometers. They may have trapped or bludgeoned smaller game. Available information from Paleo-Indian times documents hunting of several animals that became extinct in North America at the end of the Pleistocene, spectacularly skilled stone working by artisans who made beautifully crafted stone tools especially spear points , and the beginning of a reliance on bison hunting that persisted on the Great Plains for 10, years. Paleoindian Geoarchaeology of the Southern High Plains. The few areas of agreement achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia , with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period , or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum , around 16,—13, years before present. They changed slowly over thousands of years, like the Ice Age glaciers. The CW cache includes tools made from stone that outcrops north of Sterling, but the other two include material from the Texas Panhandle the Drake cache and from across the Continental Divide as far away as Utah the Mahaffy cache. From animal kill sites to tool caches, some of the most important clues to the Paleo-Indian past have been found in Colorado.
The timing of the arrival of Paleo-Indians in the Great Plains and in North America, in general, is under renewed investigation. They probably ate insects, including the larvae.
Paleo indian tools and weapons
They fashioned other crude tools, including pointed implements, from the bones of animals. During the last Ice Age, the Great Plains was inhabited by a diverse array of animals, including the Columbian mammoth, musk oxen, caribou, horse, camel, bison, elk, lion, wolf, arctic ground squirrels, arctic shrews, and lemmings. Paleo-Indians did not always do that—the Folsom-age Cattle Guard site in the San Luis Valley is a single encampment near a bison kill—but enough is known to say that Paleo-Indian ways of life were quite variable, often at a local level. This spruce forest reconstruction is not supported by a fossil record that is dominated by grazing and browsing mammals. They left a minimal and fragmentary record of their lives. Within Colorado, this variation especially involved the obvious differences between the eastern plains and the western mountains and Colorado Plateau. But it was not until August 29, , that a fluted spear or "dart" point Folsom was found by archeologists among the bones of extinct bison Bison antiquus at McJunkin's Folsom site. Folsom groups in western Colorado built stone foundation houses at least sometimes these are unknown elsewhere , and later Paleo-Indian groups in the area roasted food probably but not definitely plants in pits, using pre-heated rocks as heating elements. There are Native American museums, many of them with Paleo-Indian exhibits, across the Southwest in the larger and many smaller cities, at universities, at national and state park visitor centers and on the Indian reservations.
Based on the spear points, the other artifacts, extinct big game associations, site distributions and other evidence, archaeologists have postulated that the Paleo-Indian bands wandered, not aimlessly over the landscape, but in annual circuits. Likely, hunters often laid in wait near a lake or a bog for quarry to come to water.
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