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We now reverse the judgment. It employs 36 persons, two-thirds of whom are Negroes. The court below concluded that, if it were required to serve Negroes, it would lose a substantial amount of business. The Court gave the greatest weight to evidence that segregation in restaurants had a "direct and highly restrictive effect upon interstate travel by Negroes. The absence of direct evidence connecting discriminatory restaurant service with the flow of interstate food, [p] a factor on which the appellees place much reliance, is not, given the evidence as to the effect of such practices on other aspects of commerce, a crucial matter. On direct appeal, 28 U. For these reasons, we have concluded, with the above caveat, that the denial of discretionary declaratory relief is not required here. Court has held time and again that commerce power extends to activities of retail establishments, including restaurants, which directly or indirectly burden or obstruct interstate commerce. The District Court expressly found that a substantial portion of the food served in the restaurant Page U. Here, as there, Congress has determined for itself that refusals of service to Negroes have imposed burdens both upon the interstate flow of food and upon the movement of products generally. This diminutive spending springing from a refusal to serve Negroes and their total loss as customers has, regardless of the absence of direct evidence, a close connection to interstate commerce. And, as we said there, while no formal findings were made, which, of course, are not necessary, it is well that we make mention of the testimony at these hearings the better to understand the problem before Congress and determine whether the Act is a reasonable and appropriate means toward its solution.

But Congress' action in framing this Act was not unprecedented. This complaint for injunctive relief against appellants attacks the constitutionality of the Act as applied to a restaurant.

Carolene Products Co. The absence of direct evidence connecting discriminatory restaurant service with the flow of interstate food, Page U.

Answer: Yes. The Civil Rights Act of , as here applied, we find to be plainly appropriate in the resolution of what the Congress found to be a national commercial problem of the first magnitude. The Facts Ollie's Barbecue is a family owned restaurant in Birmingham, Alabama, specializing in barbecued meats and homemade pies, with a seating capacity of customers. But, as our late Brother Jackson said for the Court in Wickard v. Moreover, there was an impressive array of testimony that discrimination in restaurants had a direct and highly restrictive effect upon interstate travel by Negroes. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of [1] outlawing segregation in American schools and public places. The power of Congress in this field is broad and sweeping; where it keeps within its sphere and violates no express constitutional limitation it has been the rule of this Court, going back almost to the founding days of the Republic, not to interfere. As to the Commerce Clause, the court found that it was an express grant of power to Congress to regulate interstate commerce, which consists of the movement of persons, goods or information from one state to another, and it found that the clause was also a grant of power to regulate intrastate activities, but only to the extent that action on its part is necessary or appropriate to the effective execution of its expressly granted power to regulate interstate commerce. Of course, the mere fact that Congress has said when particular activity shall be deemed to affect commerce does not preclude further examination by this Court.

McClung, Sr. Of course, the mere fact that Congress has said when particular activity shall be deemed to affect commerce does not preclude further examination by this Court. The interference with governmental action has occurred and the constitutional question is before us in the companion case of Heart of Atlanta Motel as well as in this case.

This resulted, it was said, because discriminatory practices prevent Negroes from buying prepared food served on the premises while on a trip, except in isolated and unkempt restaurants and under most unsatisfactory and often unpleasant conditions.

katzenbach v. mcclung pdf

In passing on the validity of legislation of the class last mentioned the only function of courts is to determine whether the particular activity regulated or prohibited is within the reach of the federal power.

Likewise, it was said that discrimination deterred professional as well as skilled people from moving into areas where such practices occurred, and thereby caused industry to be reluctant to establish there.

Case briefing mcclung

A comparison of per capita spending by Negroes in restaurants, theaters, and like establishments indicated less spending, after discounting income differences, in areas where discrimination is widely practiced.

Nor are the cases holding that interstate commerce ends when goods come to rest in the State of destination apposite here. A three-judge District Court granted an injunction, holding that there was no demonstrable connection between food purchased in interstate commerce and sold in a restaurant and Congress' conclusion that discrimination in the restaurant would affect commerce so as to warrant regulation of local activities to protect interstate commerce.

Filburn, supra, at Where we find that the legislators, in light of the facts and testimony before them, have a rational basis for finding a chosen regulatory scheme necessary to the protection of commerce, SC's investigation is at an end.

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Katzenbach v. McClung, Sr. & McClung, Jr. case brief